San Pedro de Atacama and ALMA

Getting to the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) radio observatory is done via road. The nearest town with lodging is San Pedro de Atacama, a town of about 3900 people at an altitude of 2400m (7900 feet). Getting to San Pedro is also by car, about an hour and a half southeast from the city of Calama. Calama has an airport and takes the major jet flights from other cities in Chile.

Calama to San Pedro

Calama to San Pedro: about an hour and a half by car. (Imagery ©2016 Landsat, Map data ©2016 Google)

The landscape is at first barren in appearance, and one would be correct in keeping to this belief: No surprises… it is a desert! Most of the area is dry desert, dry, high-altitude desert. There are occasional stands of trees (government experiments) that run here and there in the regions between towns, but otherwise it is a hard packed sand, gravel mix with lava flows from the volcanic activity which is still very much alive. Arrival in San Pedro takes one off of the highway route 23 and into a world of high adobe packed walls, dirt roads and dust. The landscape is sparse, again from the viewpoint of driving around town. Behind those walls? There are some pretty nice homes in there, trees and gardens, hotels, restaurants, shops: it is a bustling little town full of things to discover and enjoy!

Arriving at San Pedro de Atacama

Arriving at San Pedro de Atacama, a small town with high walls.

People make their way about town on foot, bicycle, and car. One has to be very careful while driving, as there are no street signs, stop signs, warning indicators, etc, and the walls are too high to see around. It is not uncommon to have a swift-moving bicycle cross your path as you drive the streets.

San Pedro Streets

San Pedro Streets: there is a mix of foot traffic and cars everywhere one goes.

Each doorway can lead to any possible outcome! There are restaurants, clothing stores, textile shops, astronomy tourism centers… all located in there!

Streets of San Pedro

The streets of San Pedro – a dusty affair worth lots of investigation! Small shops and restaurants dominate the main part of town.

Located just off to the side of the main square (Plaza de Armas) is the San Pedro church, an active Roman Catholic church, and one of the oldest constructed in Chile. The church is now an historical site along with San Pedro’s oldest structure, Casa Incaica, which dates back to 1540.

Church of San Pedro de Atacama

Entrance to the Church of San Pedro de Atacama, reportedly the second oldest church in Chile, constructed in the 17th century. The patron saint of this Catholic church is Peter.

There are a lot of dogs making their living in San Pedro – they wander the streets and call the whole town their own. People lovingly care for all of them, knitting them sweaters, feeding them throughout the day, and giving a pat on the head. The little fella in the photo below followed us as we made our way to a local bakery – some of the finest croissants in Chile, I must say! He knew where to get a meal!

San Pedro puppies

There are also plentiful dogs roaming around, friendly and happy to receive a handout and a pat on the head.

One does not simply go to Chile and not try the local foods. I happen to love tamales, and they had them, and with llama! Delicious.

Llama Tamales

When in San Pedro: Try the Llama Tamales! They are delicious!

San Pedro is the nearest large town to ALMA. It is a good drive out through the desert to the site. ALMA itself has two main locations, or bases of operation: the “Low Site” and the “High Site”. Altitude makes a lot of difference to human activity! The low site is the Operations Support Facility, the OSF, at an altitude of 2900m. The high site is the Array Operations Site (AOS) and is much higher: 5058m which just takes one’s breath away!

Atacama drive

Driving between San Pedro and ALMA gives an opportunity to see just how lonely it can be here in the Atacama. Not much plant life out there!

Distant volcanoes

Continuing on the drive, the desert offers views of distant volcanoes.

A llama!

A llama! This fellow (fella?) was just wandering around out there. We had no idea what it was able to find for food or drink, but he was owned: there was a little tag on its ear.

Entrance to ALMA requires a few checks:  One has to stop at the entrance gate for some basic safety training, a short safety video and identification with the guards. The view from the main road, Route 23, is pretty spectacular. Volcanoes stretch across the horizon, and they are still geologically active.

Distant geology at ALMA

While stopped at the ALMA entrance gate for checkin and training, the geology was just amazing to sort out! The peaks of these two volcanoes are on the Chile-Bolivia border.

ALMA Low Site Distant

In the distance, the ALMA low site where operations and maintenance take place.

ALMA Low Site

This is what telephotos are for: This is the ALMA Low Site.

Driving to ALMA Low Site

Driving from the entrance gate to the ALMA Low Site: safety is a major concern. There are radio telephones every so many kilometers. The Low Site is visible on the right side of this frame.

Active volcano

An active volcano just off the site!

Once at the low site, there is the constant safety reminder in plain site: UV radiation here and at the high site is usually at the “Extreme” level resulting in terrible sun burns should one not take precautions. I used SPF110 and was ready with hats. In the winter, as when we were there, it is a bit easier to be cautious with UV, as it gets cold up there! Not much skin is exposed.

UV Meter

A UV sunlight meter: safety at ALMA even takes into account the extreme climate’s exposure to UV radiation from the sun. The light never left the blue while we were visiting. SPF110 anyone?

Frigid visits ALMA

Frigid (the penguin) makes his first visit to ALMA, and he needed a lot of sunscreen!

The operations center has the needed controls for operating the whole array. There are basic status boards and controls for every necessary activity on site. Safety demands that people only work at the high site for 4 hours before needing to return to lower altitudes to give their bodies a rest. We were quite happy to have been at Cerro Tololo only days before: that helped a lot with acclimatization.

ALMA control room

ALMA: the low site control room.

ALMA status board

ALMA: The operations schedule and status for the antennae.

Outside at the high site, the antennae were arranged closely together. They are moveable with array sizes ranging from 150m to 14km.

The antennae at the high site.

The antennae at the high site.

Maintenance at the high site is an ever-ongoing process. Technicians are able to be at the site for 4 hours before needing to return to lower altitudes. The antennae need great attention, as they are very sensitive devices. Each is cooled by Helium, powered and placed in precise locations for operations. Keeping all this going in a land that is dusty, windy and experiencing temperature extremes is a big challenge!

ALMA antenna getting some maintenance.

ALMA antenna getting some maintenance.

Antennae below are a little further away from the array’s central cluster on this day. In the background one of the many volcanoes that make the whole area.

Distant antennae and volcanic backdrop.

Distant antennae and volcanic backdrop.

There are two different antenna sizes at ALMA: 12m and 7m.  They receive photons through the <remaining> atmospheric windows between 350 μm and 10 mm. Resolution depends on the array’s configuration, as the whole system operates as an interferometer. They have gotten to 10 milliarseconds, which is a huge accomplishment, as this is 5 times better than the Hubble Space Telescope’s ability, and ten times better than the Very Large Array’s ability.

The author braving the chilly winds and extreme UV at the high site.

The author braving the chilly winds and extreme UV at the high site.

The antennae in the central grouping on this fine, clear day.

The antennae in the central grouping on this fine, clear day.

Safety is a huge issue for ALMA and those that work there. We carried portable cans of Oxygen for a sip here and there. Let me be the first to tell you just how good it felt to get re-oxygenated once levels in the blood got to the mid-70% range. Low levels bring a person to hypoxia, something I am no stranger to as a pilot…. but one of the great equalizers of hypoxia is a general sense that all things are good, great in fact… illusory euphoria. Nice! Having 90% blood Oxygen is good, and it was easy with a quick shot or two from the cans.

This was posed, but still, the need to have some portable Oxygen was really there! We liked those little cans.

This was posed, but still, the need to have some portable Oxygen was really there! We liked those little cans. 😉

Portable blood Oxygen meter. Simply place it on a healthy finger and within seconds a reading is given.

Portable blood Oxygen meter. Simply place it on a healthy finger and within seconds a reading is given. This reading of 79% and heartbeat of 86BPM is indicative of a need to sip some Oxygen from the can.

Getting to a higher point on the plateau, one could see the entire array the day we were there. There was a light amount of snow also present, which was rapidly sublimating away into the very dry desert air.

Does this look like Mars to you? It sure does to me! Not a sign of living things other than those antennae over there!

Does this look like Mars to you? It sure does to me! Not a sign of living things other than those antennae over there!

There is a huge level of technical know-how going on behind the scenes at ALMA. All the antennae have FDDI feeds (fiber optics) to the central processing unit, “The Correlator”. When using many antennae, photons from their object of study arrive at very slightly differing times at each antenna. This is simply a matter of geometry. Photons from one source arrive at the closest antenna first, and hit the most distant antenna last. All this received data has to be aligned temporally before it can be analyzed scientifically. This is the job of the supercomputer called a correlator. The one at ALMA resides at the high site and has the equivalent of 134 million processors… some 20 million solder joints!  That is a lot of power.

The incoming fiber optic lines from the array.

The incoming fiber optic lines from the array.

The author besides one of the many rows of correlator's stacks of circuitry.

The author besides one of the many rows of correlator’s stacks of circuitry. The room hums with fans to keep the whole place at the proper temperature and humidity.

As noted earlier, each of the antennae are moveable, and with some incredible precision. Getting this done is no easy task. A specially designed and built transporter “truck” was designed and constructed just for this task. As an antenna is built and tested, it then must go up the path from the low site to the high site. This beast of a machine gets that done with the aid of very skillful drivers. The transporter has 14 independently steerable (and fully adjustable in height!) wheels, each of which is also independently powered. Ok!  A 14-wheel drive vehicle!  This machine lifts an antenna into a well-held mount and powers both itself and the antenna using two large diesel generators. The antenna must remain powered at all times: remember that it is cooled with compressed, super cold liquid Helium! There are two transporters, named Otto and Lore, and the best part? They can be controlled using a hand held remote control unit.

One of the two antenna transporters.

One of the two antenna transporters.

Local life on the ALMA road.

The auto road from the high site to the low site. This is one of the fauna living wild up there in the Atacama. At lower altitudes there is some scrub brush for them to eat.

One nifty little techy trick is that the iPhone (and many others) have built in GPS and compasses which imbed geo0location metadata into your photos. Here’s the array seen from inside the high site operations center. Yes, that is 16,500 feet.

vert_angle_deg=-4.8 / horiz_angle_deg=-0.2

Imbedded metadata for the photograph while at the high site.

vert_angle_deg=2.6 / horiz_angle_deg=0.2

The sky is so blue!  The air, so thin!

It was very windy and cold out there that day: little worry for a sun burn given that we were so bundled up in June, a.k.a. winter in the southern hemisphere. Frigid had a good time!

The author with Frigid, his beloved traveling companion.

The author with Frigid, his beloved traveling companion.

Coming off the high site and back into the Atacama Desert: not a whole lot of much going on out there.

Coming off the high site and back into the Atacama Desert: not a whole lot of much going on out there. I did want to get a soil sample and test it out for extremophilic bacteria.

If you happen to be visiting the ALMA sites, you are also near one of the most interesting places in the Atacama, the Los Flamencos National Reserve. Yes, there is water out there, but it is VERY salty!  Two large salt flats reside at the high altitude plateau in the Atacama: the Tara and the Aguas Calientes. The salt is pushed up out of the earth by hot springs. As the water evaporates it leaves behind fascinating crystal formations right on the surface of the desert… stretching for miles.

Salt flats in Los Flamencos, along with a volcano and a moonrise!

Salt flats in Los Flamencos, along with a volcano and a moonrise!

It would not be Los Flamencos without a…. flamingos! This particular species is the James flamingo and they just love to eat the brine shrimp that reside in the salty waters. Shrimp? Yep!

A James Flamingo enjoying the hunt for brine shrimp meals.

A James Flamingo enjoying the hunt for brine shrimp meals.

The ALMA trip is a wrap!

ACEAP2016 Group

The ACEAP 2016 Team. Back row, left to right: Charles Blue, Bill Bogardus, John Blackwell, Carmen Pantoja,  Sergio Cabezon, Derrick Pitts, Josh Roberts, Sian Proctor. Front row, left to right: David Lockett, Geneviève de Messière, Michelle Peterson. Photo: T. Spuck (AUI/NSF), not pictured.

More about The Astronomy in Chile Educator Ambassadors Program (ACEAP), please visit their pages at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory website here: ACEAP.

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Cerro Tololo: A Summit of Telescopes

Our arrival on Cerro Tololo was late in the afternoon after a full day up at Cerro Pachon and the Gemini South campus. While the two mountaintops are relatively close to each other (10km), it takes hours to get from one to the other view the high altitude switch-back roads that lead along a generally more approachable path to the mountains that a direct route. Cerro Tololo itself is 2207m in altitude, a good preparation for our higher altitude stay at ALMA later in the trip. Cerro Tololo is home to the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, the CTIO.

Cerro Tololo Summit Map

Cerro Tololo Summit Map (Wikimedia Commons)

Arrival on the summit campus gave a very rapid impression of the overall sprawl. There are telescope domes everywhere up there!  The mountain’s top contains a plateau with the 4m Blanco telescope and the 1.5m SMARTS telescope dome being the most prominent. There are some nine instruments on the top plateau alone. A little down the mountainside is a group of small instruments in a region that some call the “mushroom garden”. Plant a mirror and watch the dome grow? In this area there are 16+ domes. Going further down still, there is the cafeteria and the dormitories for administration and visiting astronomers. We were in a dorm lowest down, closest to the SARA telescope facility.


The SARA observatory facility, a little further down the mountain from the rest of the observatories.

SARA stands for the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy, a group of some 13 college, universities and institutes which control a series of telescopes for their use. A friend and colleague of mine, Tom Rutherford, gets time on the SARA telescope on Cerro Tololo, and the whole process is done remotely. Robotic technology has been making astronomical observing much more economic and streamlined.

CTIO Mushroom Garden

The telescopes on CTIO just below the main plateau. GONG, 2MASS and others reside here.

The mushroom garden is a real collection of telescopes from all over. There is a GONG facility (Global Oscillation Network Group) which has many facilities all watching the Sun. They study surface oscillations for the field of helioseismology, amazing stuff! Others in the garden include scopes for SMARTS, PROMPT, WHAM, LCOGTN, and 2MASS.

This is the UMass 2MASS telescope.

This is the UMass 2MASS telescope.

The 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) also has a telescope here. This one run by UMass, the 2MASS system did a huge near IR (I, J, and K) survey of the sky, one of the earliest. using two 1.3m telescopes: one at CTIO and one in the north at Mt. Hopkins.

On top the mountain are the two big facilities: the 4m Blanco Telescope and the SMARTS 1.5m.  The SMARTS 1.5m scope is a Cassegrain focus system with two focal lengths available depending on which secondary mirror is installed: f/13.5 and f/8. Two instruments are now available, R-C Spec and CHIRON. CHIRON is a precision spectrograph, a fiber fed echelle system like that we use at Phillips Exeter, only with higher dispersion  and resolution for making very fine measurements in radial velocity.

CTIO SMARTS 1.5m Telescope

The SMARTS 1.5m Telescope.

Cassegrain focus on SMARTS

The Cassegrain focus on SMARTS.

SMARTS control panel

The SMARTS control panel. It is a thing of beauty and simplicity.

The largest telescope on the mountain is the 4m diameter Victor Blanco. Opened in 1974, this is very similar to the 4m telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona. The telescope has several instruments: a wide field imaging camera (DECam) and low to medium resolution spectrographs, COSMOS and ARCoIRIS. The DECam is used for data collection in the Dark Energy Survey program, kind of like a new Sloan Sky Survey… more on this at their homepage here:

The 4m Blanco?  It is a pretty huge machine, as you can imagine!

4m Blanco CTIO

The 4m Victor Blanco Dome at CTIO. That is one BIG dome! This is a shot taken by moonlight on our first night.

4m Blanco Controls

4m Blanco Controls: everything from weather to CCD and spectrograph operations are controlled here.

4m Blanco Pan

This is the whole dome interior. Modern photo software allows great opportunities to take photos of large spaces! This is a panorama shot inside the 4m dome.

Our first night on the mountain, we stayed up to observe through a high layer of cirrus clouds and the waxing gibbous moon. Conditions were certainly not optimal, but the views of the milky way, even with moonlight and clouds, was pretty outstanding!

The summit from lower down the mountainside.

The summit from lower down the mountainside. On night-1 we had both moon and clouds, but the views were still inspiring.

Mushroom Garden at night

Looking out from the summit road towards the multitude of domes at night.

Our second night on the mountain proved to be the best. Some high cirrus clouds whisked away into the distance, and the sky turned a deep blue for sunset on the mountain. A tradition among astronomers is to get all the observatory equipment ready for the night, cool things off, and watch the sunset. We had a glorious view!

Sunset on CTIO1

Sunset on night 2 from CTIO: the distant foothills are lovely, all aglow with the evening sunlight.


Looking at the mountains surrounding Cerro Tololo, the views take one’s breath away! The sunset just made it all the more colorful.

sunset CTIO night 2

The sunset itself on night two.

Using a portable telescope, the group had views of some of the prominent southern hemisphere deep sky objects and Saturn… breathtaking!  The air is so steady at this site, that the Cassini Division and the Crepe Ring were clearly visible in a 10″ telescope!  Needless to say, there were a lot of oohs and ahhs.  With the moon still up, I decided to get some sleep for the first half of the night and get up at 3am to catch the moonset and the moon-less views of the milky way. None of us were disappointed, though we were a little sleepy the next day!

Night 2 with moon

This image was taken earlier in the evening of night two while the moon was still up. The views of the milky way are still more incredible here than it is in 90% of the rest of the inhabited planet.


Looking towards the west in this image, the mountain summit and domes are visible on the horizon. The Milky Way was bright enough to walk about easily without a flashlight.


Once the moon had set, the Milky Way just popped out! This is a 30 second exposure with a fisheye lens at about 4am local time. Both the large and small Magellanic Clouds are visible.

If you happen to be in Chile, close to La Serena, have some free time, and some curiosity, you should definitely get in touch with CTIO and see if you can get a tour. It has some of the best observing conditions on the planet, and is well worth the visit…. enjoy the skies, the people, the wildlife and the crisp air!

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Cerro Pachón & Gemini South Telescope

Gemini South is one of a two part observatory system, the Gemini Observatory. The northern counterpart is at Hilo, Hawaii, while the southern telescope is located on Cerro Pachón, a 2682m (8799 feet) tall mountain in Chile.  This is one large telescope, with a primary mirror diameter of 8.1 meters!  It collects a lot of light, and at this location, it can do just that. Cerro Pachón has some of the darkest and steadiest skies in the world. Combine that with the instrumentation on board this telescope, and the total integrated system produced results better than the Hubble Space Telescope!

Gemini South Dome

A view of the Gemini South dome from the far side of the mountain. That is one big dome!

The telescope is a somewhat unusual design in terms of mounting: it is on an altitude-azimuth configuration. The azimuth bearing is literally the steel rotating platform of the telescope resting on a steel azimuth ring. The ring is set atop a concrete telescope pier. To allow for smooth movement, oil is pressurized and pumped into the region between the two steel plates.  This setup has withstood all the seismic activity that Chile has thrown at it, but it was somewhat damaged during one of the strongest quakes in recent years which caused the mount to slide side-to-side with such force that the restraining plates were damaged.

Instrument package for Gemini South

This is the Cassegrain focus location for Gemini South. The instrument package hangs between the two stairways. The blue disk on the floor is the telescope’s azimuth bearing plate.

The altitude bearings are a little smaller but also float on a thin film of pressurized oil. The pumps for both axis can be heard constantly in the background of this rather industrial setting. Astronomers immediately know when something is wrong if those pumps are not making their usual noises.

Being an altitude-azimuth arrangement, this means that the field of view at the image plane rotates!  They compensate for this by de-rotating the entire instrument package at the Cassegrain focus of the telescope (hanging underneath the primary mirror). As the field rotates, this package rotates precisely in the opposite direction to counteract this.

One of the most amazing packages on board Gemini South is the GeMS, the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System. Now, you might already know about adaptive optics. A laser is projected into the sky to make a fake guide star, which the telescope system sees and senses. As the atmosphere makes this star wobble, small mirrors are used to move the image of that star back into place. This happens at a rate of up to 1000 times each second in both axis: up/down, and left/right. To make the system better, Gemini South uses five laser beams into the sky. This allows them to not only correct the errors caused by atmospheric seeing conditions, but also to correct for predicted motions in the stars’ positions!  This allows the telescope to image down to 0.1 arc-second seeing!  That is very sharp indeed!

GS primary mirror

Gemini South’s primary mirror. That’s 8.1 meters of diameter. The mirror is not coated with aluminum like most astronomical telescopes, but is coated with silver. This makes it more reflective to infra-red wavelengths. To the left of this image is a large metal “box”. This is where the laser is installed for the GeMS.

At this altitude, and given that it was winter there in June, snow was present on the mountain and those surrounding. The views here are lovely, as one would expect from an altitude of 8900 feet.

Winter here in June. Yes, that is snow!

Winter here in June. Yes, that is snow!

Controlling the telescope and all the associated equipment is done from the central control room. Eventually all this will be done from operations at AURA back in La Serena. The control system includes everything necessary for all observatory components, including: ventilation/cooling, instrument status and control, telescope pointing, oil system control, sky conditions and weather forecasts, and more. The system has redundancy with dual control desks.

Gemini South Control

Gemini South Control

Gemini South Control Room

Gemini South Control Room

All in all, the Gemini South observatory is an amazing place! All the instrumentation and systems that work together make for an astounding ability for data collection… and also a huge need for systems integration and maintenance. If you have the opportunity, I highly recommend a visit!

All of Gemini South

All of Gemini South: an indoor panorama.

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Panoramic Chile

One of the things I like to do when traveling is to take photos that give an overall perspective to the surroundings. While this is getting to be easier with cell phones and their build-in 3D and spherical photography applications, not much can beat a full frame DSLR or film camera taking shots that are later merged to form a solid, high resolution image. These were stitched together in Adobe Photoshop with minimal post processing. The images are not cropped, so that you can see all the data. Enjoy!

Santiago seen from the top deck of the Gran Torre Santiago

Santiago seen from the top deck of the Gran Torre Santiago, the tallest building in South America (64 stories). The view is spectacular.

Laguna de Chaxa

Laguna de Chaxa, home to very salty water, Los Flamincos and brine shrimp galore.

Geology of the Atacama Desert.

Geology of the Atacama Desert.

View from the top of Cerro Tololo just before sunset.

View from the top of Cerro Tololo just before sunset.

View from the top of Cerro Pachón.

View from the top of Cerro Pachón.

View from the top of Cerro Pachón.

View from the top of Cerro Pachón.

ALMA seen from a higher vantage point.

ALMA seen from a higher vantage point.

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Under the Stars of Cerro Tololo: Night 2

Night Two on Cerro Tololo was tremendous. We started out the evening with a viewing of the sunset from the edge of the mountain top just outside the central gathering place: the cafeteria 😉  Food on the mountain, by the way, is delicious, plentiful and healthy. We had hoped to catch the green flash, but we had some low clouds floating in the western horizon. No flash, just gorgeous views of the mountains as the landscape turned red.

CTIO Night 2: Sunset Panorama

CTIO Night 2: Sunset Panorama

CTIO Night 2: Sunset

CTIO Night 2: Sunset

Once the sun had set completely, the stars came out rapidly. The moon was in a waxing gibbous phase, which meant that much of the night would be illuminated quite well: no need for flashlights to get around the mountain until the moon set. Here is a 30 second exposure of the Milky Way, which was VERY visible, while the moon was still high in the sky. Imager: Nikon D810a 16mm f/2.8 fisheye 30 seconds.

CTIO Night 2: Milky Way with Moon

CTIO Night 2: Milky Way with Moon

It is pretty exciting to be seeing the Milky Way so clearly even with a gibbous moon high in the sky. The transparency at CTIO is tremendous with some of the best seeing conditions I have ever witnessed.  One very obvious feature of the Cerro Tololo sky is that there is no scintillation. Stars do not twinkle! They are steady and just hang in the sky. If this was the sky with the moon above the horizon, what would it look like once the moon had set after 3:30am or so?  I went to bed and set the alarm for 3am. That was a very good decision!

As the alarm went off, I was pretty sleepy, but very excited by the prospect of getting some stunning images of the sky. Stepping out of the dorm room onto the sandy pathway, it was more than obvious that the moon had set for our side of the mountain. Shadows of Cerro Tololo were being cast by the moon onto the eastern peaks. The snow line was still clearly visible, but that shadow was rising rapidly as the moon went further below the horizon. Grabbing the camera and tripod, I made my way outside. Several of us gathered for the stunning view: a Milky Way from horizon to horizon, with dark lanes, bright nebulae, clusters galore, and color! It is very difficult to convey just what the scene looked like. There were so many stars that constellations were sometimes impossible to identify, giving strong evidence to the native constellations, the dark regions of the Milky Way become the Llama, the Toad, the Serpent, the Shepherd, the Fox, all became visible as dark shadows over the blazing Milky Way.

CTIO Night 2: Milky Way

CTIO Night 2: Milky Way. A single 30 second exposure. D810a 16mm fisheye f/2.8

CTIO Night 2: The Milky Way with SMC and LMC

CTIO Night 2: The Milky Way with SMC and LMC. A single 30 second exposure 16mm f/2.8 D810a.

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