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Posts from the ‘Education’ Category


Comatic Aberration and Chromatic Aberration

These two phrases are pretty much guaranteed to raise the blood pressure of optical aficionados: Comatic Aberration and Chromatic Aberration. There. Did your blood pressure go up? Then it is likely you have dealt with one or both of these issues before… and it is likely that you do not need to read further! For those looking around the internet for an example of these aberrations, seek no more!

Let us start with an image. This shot is of the December sky taken through a wide angle 20mm AFS Nikkor 1:1.8G ED lens on a Nikon D-810. The images were raw NEF files without any processing (except resize), either on board the camera or using software. Click on any image to see it in larger format.

Taurus and comet Wirtanen
Taurus and Comet Wirtanen

The image is a pretty typical night shot: 10 seconds focused at infinity and using 5000 ISO at f/2 (a little stopped down). The constellation Taurus is dominating the right side of the image. There is an airplane top-center moving to the lower left. If you follow the airplane’s future trail it leads to a faint greenish fuzzy object, Comet 46P/Wirtanen. This image is reduced in size…. but upon close, full-scale viewing, this image displays two of the common issues that astronomers and photographers aim to rid themselves of. Funny thing is that this lens gets fabulous reviews on sites like Amazon, and when I complained about these issues I was actually chastised! “Are you kidding? This is such a great lens!” Well, no. It’s not, and for the price, it really should perform a lot better. Add to this story the fact that the Nikkor 16mm fisheye actually is BETTER than this 20mm lens, and there you have an argument to not buy this 20mm lens. So, read on….

May I present to you comatic aberration:

comatic aberration in star images
Classic coma on the images of stars. These should be small round dots, not winged things….

This aberration is off to the sides of the image, off-the central axis. The further from the center, the worse this aberration gets. Some systems sprout seagull like wings from stars. This lens sprouts more than that. Ugly. The cause of this problem is in the optical design and is usually found in parabolic mirror systems like Newtonian reflectors. Alas, it also happens here in lens designs.

May I now present to you chromatic aberration:

Chromatic aberration in star image
An example of chromatic aberration: note the violet halo surrounding the bright star. The violet wavelengths focus at a different distance than all the rest. The fuzzy green object to the left is Comet Wirtanen.

Chromatic aberration has been the bane of the optical world for a long time, starting with those who first pointed telescopes up at the stars (i.e. those like Galileo, etc). A single lens acts very much like a prism in how it bends (refracts) light. The angle of refraction has to do with the light’s wavelength, so not all colors of light will come to focus at the same spot. This is usually handled with complex, multiple-lens systems like Petzval lens groupings using unique glass recipes than minimize chromatic aberration. Well, this lens? It suffers. When pointing at a bright white star, this lens gives an image very much like that of a simple two-lens refracting telescope, what is called an achromatic refractor. Well, they are notorious for having a violet to blue ring of light surrounding bright objects… and halos of blue around the moon and Jupiter. Not fun. Nope. This is why we have monstrously expensive systems like apochromats and Petzvals. We are talking expensive!


20-21 January 2019: Total Lunar Eclipse

We have a splendid opportunity to see a total lunar eclipse this January. It will be taking place late on a Sunday night into the early hours of Monday morning. That Monday is also Martin Luther King, Jr. Day here in the USA, so many schools will not have classes that day. Eclipse timings are given in the above graphic, in Universal Time.  Converting that to the various USA time zones: 

Event Pacific Mountain Central Eastern
Partial eclipse starts 7:34 pm 8:34 pm 9:34 pm 10:34 pm
Total eclipse starts 8:41 pm 9:41 pm 10:41 pm 11:41 pm
Total eclipse ends 9:43 pm 10:43 pm 11:43 pm 12:43 am
Partial eclipse ends 10:51 pm 11:51 pm 12:51 am 1:51 am

Usually the real eclipse visibility starts to take place late in the penumbral phase approaching the first contact of the umbra. If you have not seen a lunar eclipse before, it is quite a special event. The moon will appear to have a charcoal chunk missing from it as the eclipse progresses.  Deeper into the eclipse, the moon will take on a rusty red hue caused by the sunlight passing through the earth’s atmosphere before arriving at the moon. Telescopes are not required, as one can see the whole event easily with the eye. Binoculars and telescopes will offer a nice closeup view.  Photography of the event is a relatively simple affair. A good tripod and telephoto lens will work well with the moderate shutter speeds required.  Tracking is not needed.  An example of a series of photos I took of the last total lunar eclipse is below. The camera was a Nikon D7000 with 200mm telephoto on a tripod. Click for a larger image.


What is a Quindar Tone?

Ever watched footage of the Mercury, Gemini or Apollo space projects? When Houston talks to the astronauts, there is a beep, then some talking then another beep? Yep – those beeps are Quindar Tones. If you listen carefully, the tones are not the same pitch: there are two distinct tones, one at 2525Hz and the other at 2475Hz. They are both 250ms in length…. like these:

What are these tones for? What’s going on? Why the beeps?  Well, it all boils down to older technology. Back when they were shooting astronauts into space on top of missiles (some more controlled than others), eventually they got people into orbit. As astronauts orbited the Earth, they needed some way to talk to them, even when their space capsules were not within the line of sight of Mission Control in Houston, Texas. Communications centers and tracking stations were built around the world, each with the ability to talk directly to the space capsule as it orbited on by. Mission Control then had telephone lines to each of these stations around the world. These lines were dedicated lines, and expensive. The tones were used as a method to control when the remotely located transmitter was transmitting, and used the phone lines to send these remote control tones as audible beeps. Both tones originated at Mission Control…. like this:

  1. Mission control needs to say something to the astronauts in space. They push the push-to-talk switch.
  2. This send a 2525Hz intro tone to the system.
  3. The remote communications station receives the intro tone, and turns on the transmitter to the radio antenna aimed at the space capsule.
  4. Voice communications takes place.
  5. When done, Mission control releases the PTT switch, and the 2475Hz outro tone is sent, thus turning off the system. The remote transmitter is off.

An example for you is below. Note that the Quindar tones only take place just before and after Mission Control speaks. The astronauts do not initiate any of the tones. They make all radio calls into the “blind” so to speak, hoping that some ground tracking station is picking them up.

Now, you might wonder about the issues here. If an astronaut were to also talk at the same time, they might pick up a Quindar tone on their audio and retransmit it back to the ground and cause all sorts of troubles down on the Earth side of things. Yep – that was a problem(!) so engineers made their best effort to prevent the tones from even reaching the astronauts by placing a filter into the stream of all uplinked audio sent to the capsule. These filters were simple notch filters centered on the tone frequencies…. not perfect, by any means, but it worked, generally.

The name “Quindar”?  That came from the organization that invented the system, Quindar Electronics. You can visit their site at:  to see some of their excellent history.

What now?  Quindar tones were used from the early flights of Merucry through the Space Shuttle program. With new methods of telecommunications (i.e. fiber optics, satellite feeds, etc), sending command and control statements to remotely located transmitter sites is a lot easier. There is no need for audible tones these days.




Cleaning Time!

Every observatory needs basic maintenance, and those here at PEA are no different. I usually cringe at the thought, but cleaning is a part of the requirement… not that I dislike cleaning. I actually really find it meditative, and a clean observatory dome makes me smile. The cringe-feeling comes from the prospect of kicking up a ton of dust, pollen, cob webs, and such… all of which will have to come to rest some place: Hopefully not on any optics! EEEK! Scheduling the cleaning is a whole other game to play, as well. School ends in early June. A few weeks later, the summer school program begins, and then runs for 5 more weeks. Grass is growing and getting cut throughout June and summer, so, why clean if it’s going to get even more dusty and grassy and pollen-dusty…? So… I wait until the end of summer, when there is a cool, dry, sunny day, like today!

Step – one – cover the optics. Then cover the telescope tubes and mounts with trash bags. Open the dome and aperture.

Two – Vacuum the whole place from top to bottom. We have open studs, so there are a lot of nooks and crannies to work through.

Three – Damp wipe of surfaces, and then a scrub of the floor.

Four – wipe down the ladder and other step-stool devices used by observers throughout the year.

Five – wait for everything to be dry. A light breeze and sunny, dry weather help here. Today was a perfect day.

The result? A clean observatory with a bunch of displaced spiders and no more wasp nests. Webs are gone. Pollen and dust are gone. Happiness!


A clean machine!


A Meeting of Jupiter and the Moon

A nice photo opportunity will be taking place on August 17th just after sunset. Head outside and look to the southwest for the crescent moon. Just a little to the lower right (southwest) from the moon will be brilliant Jupiter. Heading more to the west, Venus will be lighting up the sky. Enjoy!

Screenshot 2018-08-16 09.36.12

The Moon, Jupiter and Venus just after sunset on August 17th.